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A Full List of References for Medical Marijuana Series

Turning Over a New Leaf: Cannabinoid and Endocannabinoid Modulation of Immune Function.

Cabral GA, Rogers TJ, Lichtman AH.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Jun;10(2):193-203. doi: 10.1007/s11481-015-9615-z. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

The endocannabinoid system and pain.

Guindon J, Hohmann AG.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2009 Dec;8(6):403-21. Review.

Endocannabinoid binding to the cannabinoid receptors: what is known and what remains unknown.

Reggio PH.

Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(14):1468-86. Review.

Endocannabinoid chemical biology: a tool for the development of novel therapies.

Petrosino S, Ligresti A, Di Marzo V.

Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009 Jun;13(3):309-20. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.04.616. Epub 2009 May 18. Review.

Endocannabinoid system: emerging role from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration.

Basavarajappa BS, Nixon RA, Arancio O.

Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009 Apr;9(4):448-62. Review.

From endocannabinoid profiling to 'endocannabinoid therapeutics'.

Ligresti A, Petrosino S, Di Marzo V.

Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009 Jun;13(3):321-31. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.04.615. Epub 2009 Jun 3. Review.

Immunomodulatory lipids in plants: plant fatty acid amides and the human endocannabinoid system.

Gertsch J.

Planta Med. 2008 May;74(6):638-50. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1034302. Epub 2008 Feb 14. Review.

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation.

Murillo-Rodriguez E, Poot-Ake A, Arias-Carrion O, Pacheco-Pantoja E, Fuente-Ortegon Ade L, Arankowsky-Sandoval G.

Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2011 Sep 1;11(3):189-96. Review.

Endocannabinoid system in neurodegenerative disorders.

Basavarajappa BS, Shivakumar M, Joshi V, Subbanna S.

J Neurochem. 2017 Sep;142(5):624-648. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14098. Epub 2017 Jul 5. Review.

Endocannabinoid mechanisms of pain modulation.

Hohmann AG, Suplita RL 2nd.

AAPS J. 2006 Nov 17;8(4):E693-708. Review.

In vivo pharmacology of endocannabinoids and their metabolic inhibitors: therapeutic implications in Parkinson's disease and abuse liability.

Giuffrida A, McMahon LR.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2010 Apr;91(3-4):90-103. doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2009.05.004. Epub 2009 Jun 10. Review.

Endocannabinoid system and mood disorders: priming a target for new therapies.

Micale V, Di Marzo V, Sulcova A, Wotjak CT, Drago F.

Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr;138(1):18-37. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2012.12.002. Epub 2012 Dec 20. Review.

An introduction to the endocannabinoid system: from the early to the latest concepts.

De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Feb;23(1):1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2008.10.013. Review.

Endocannabinoid structure-activity relationships for interaction at the cannabinoid receptors.

Reggio PH.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Feb-Mar;66(2-3):143-60. Review.

The endocannabinoid system: physiology and pharmacology.

Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Del Arco I, Bermudez-Silva FJ, Bilbao A, Cippitelli A, Navarro M.

Alcohol Alcohol. 2005 Jan-Feb;40(1):2-14. Epub 2004 Nov 18. Review.

Cannabinoids and Pain: Sites and Mechanisms of Action.

Starowicz K, Finn DP.

Adv Pharmacol. 2017;80:437-475. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.05.003. Epub 2017 Jun 20. Review.

The endocannabinoid system: its general strategy of action, tools for its pharmacological manipulation and potential therapeutic exploitation.

Di Marzo V.

Pharmacol Res. 2009 Aug;60(2):77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.02.010. Epub 2009 Mar 4. Review.

Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related mediators: Targets, metabolism and role in neurological disorders.

Iannotti FA, Di Marzo V, Petrosino S.

Prog Lipid Res. 2016 Apr;62:107-28. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2016.02.002. Epub 2016 Mar 7. Review.

Psychopharmacology of the endocannabinoids: far beyond anandamide.

Pamplona FA, Takahashi RN.

J Psychopharmacol. 2012 Jan;26(1):7-22. doi: 10.1177/0269881111405357. Epub 2011 Jun 7. Review.

Changes in endocannabinoid receptors and enzymes in the spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice and evaluation of a Sativex(®) -like combination of phytocannabinoids: interest for future therapies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Moreno-Martet M, Espejo-Porras F, Fernández-Ruiz J, de Lago E.

CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Sep;20(9):809-15. doi: 10.1111/cns.12262. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Endogenous cannabinoids in the brain and peripheral tissues: regulation of their levels and control of food intake.

Matias I, Bisogno T, Di Marzo V.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr;30 Suppl 1:S7-S12. Review.

Why do cannabinoid receptors have more than one endogenous ligand?

Di Marzo V, De Petrocellis L.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Dec 5;367(1607):3216-28. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0382. Review.

Endocannabinoid tone versus constitutive activity of cannabinoid receptors.

Howlett AC, Reggio PH, Childers SR, Hampson RE, Ulloa NM, Deutsch DG.

Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1329-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01364.x. Review.

Endocannabinoid signaling in neurotoxicity and neuroprotection.

Pope C, Mechoulam R, Parsons L.

Neurotoxicology. 2010 Sep;31(5):562-71. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2009.12.002. Epub 2009 Dec 5.

The endocannabinoid system in neurodegeneration.

Battista N, Fezza F, Finazzi-Agrò A, Maccarrone M.

Ital J Biochem. 2006 Sep-Dec;55(3-4):283-9. Review.

The endocannabinoid system: a general view and latest additions.

De Petrocellis L, Cascio MG, Di Marzo V.

Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;141(5):765-74. Epub 2004 Jan 26. Review.

Cannabinoids and the gut: new developments and emerging concepts.

Izzo AA, Sharkey KA.

Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Apr;126(1):21-38. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.12.005. Epub 2010 Feb 1. Review.

Therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system in the brain.

Ramos JA, González S, Sagredo O, Gómez-Ruiz M, Fernández-Ruiz J.

Mini Rev Med Chem. 2005 Jul;5(7):609-17. Review.

Lipid rafts control signaling of type-1 cannabinoid receptors in neuronal cells. Implications for anandamide-induced apoptosis.

Bari M, Battista N, Fezza F, Finazzi-Agrò A, Maccarrone M.

J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 1;280(13):12212-20. Epub 2005 Jan 18.

Cannabinoid/Endocannabinoid signaling impact on early pregnancy events.

Sun X, Dey SK.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2009;1:255-73. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-88955-7_10. Review.


Basic neuroanatomy and neuropharmacology of cannabinoids.

Breivogel CS, Sim-Selley LJ.

Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;21(2):113-21. doi: 10.1080/09540260902782760. Review.

The potent emetogenic effects of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) are blocked by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannnabinoids.

Darmani NA.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):34-42.

The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol inhibit cholinergic contractility in the human colon.

Smid SD, Bjorklund CK, Svensson KM, Heigis S, Revesz A.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 1;575(1-3):168-76. Epub 2007 Jul 26.

Site-specific increases in peripheral cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands in a model of neuropathic pain.

Mitrirattanakul S, Ramakul N, Guerrero AV, Matsuka Y, Ono T, Iwase H, Mackie K, Faull KF, Spigelman I.

Pain. 2006 Dec 15;126(1-3):102-14. Epub 2006 Jul 14.

The endocannabinoid/endovanilloid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 abate the inflammatory activation of human endothelial cells.

Wilhelmsen K, Khakpour S, Tran A, Sheehan K, Schumacher M, Xu F, Hellman J.

J Biol Chem. 2014 May 9;289(19):13079-100. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.536953. Epub 2014 Mar 18.

Type 1 cannabinoid receptor ligands display functional selectivity in a cell culture model of striatal medium spiny projection neurons.

Laprairie RB, Bagher AM, Kelly ME, Dupré DJ, Denovan-Wright EM.

J Biol Chem. 2014 Sep 5;289(36):24845-62. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.557025. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Role of lipids and lipid signaling in the development of cannabinoid tolerance.

Martin BR.

Life Sci. 2005 Aug 19;77(14):1543-58. Review.

Endocannabinoids and Their Pharmacological Actions.

Pertwee RG.

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2015;231:1-37. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-20825-1_1. Review.

The endocannabinoid system in ageing: a new target for drug development.

Paradisi A, Oddi S, Maccarrone M.

Curr Drug Targets. 2006 Nov;7(11):1539-52. Review.

Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol protects neurons against β-amyloid insults.

Chen X, Zhang J, Chen C.

Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 31;178:159-68. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.01.024. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

The endocannabinoid system, anandamide and the regulation of mammalian cell apoptosis.

Maccarrone M, Finazzi-Agró A.

Cell Death Differ. 2003 Sep;10(9):946-55. Review.

Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Phytocannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, and Synthetic Cannabinoids.

Wiley JL, Owens RA, Lichtman AH.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2016 Jun 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Molecular Pharmacology of Phytocannabinoids.

Turner SE, Williams CM, Iversen L, Whalley BJ.

Prog Chem Org Nat Prod. 2017;103:61-101. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_3. Rev

Enhanced endocannabinoid tone as a potential target of pharmacotherapy.

Toczek M, Malinowska B.

Life Sci. 2018 Jul 1;204:20-45. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.04.054. Epub 2018 May 2. Review.

The gastrointestinal tract - a central organ of cannabinoid signaling in health and disease.

Hasenoehrl C, Taschler U, Storr M, Schicho R.

Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 Dec;28(12):1765-1780. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12931. Epub 2016 Aug 26. Review.

Plant, synthetic, and endogenous cannabinoids in medicine.

Di Marzo V, Petrocellis LD.

Annu Rev Med. 2006;57:553-74. Review.

Endocannabinoid metabolic pathways and enzymes.

Ligresti A, Cascio MG, Di Marzo V.

Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord. 2005 Dec;4(6):615-23. Review.

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in schizophrenia.

Kucerova J, Tabiova K, Drago F, Micale V.

Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2014 Apr;9(1):13-25. Review.

[Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands--anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol].

Waku K.

Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006 Feb;126(2):67-81. Review. Japanese.

TRP Channels as Novel Targets for Endogenous Ligands: Focus on Endocannabinoids and Nociceptive Signalling.

Storozhuk MV, Zholos AV.

Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Jan 30;16(2):137-150. doi: 10.2174/1570159X15666170424120802.

Cannabinoids biology: the search for new therapeutic targets.

Felder CC, Dickason-Chesterfield AK, Moore SA.

Mol Interv. 2006 Jun;6(3):149-61. Review.

Phytocannabinoids and Cannabimimetic Drugs: Recent Patents in Central Nervous System Disorders.

Ranieri R, Marasco D, Bifulco M, Malfitano AM.

Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2016;10(2):157-177. Review.

Anandamide, but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol, accumulates during in vivo neurodegeneration.

Hansen HH, Schmid PC, Bittigau P, Lastres-Becker I, Berrendero F, Manzanares J, Ikonomidou C, Schmid HH, Fernández-Ruiz JJ, Hansen HS.

J Neurochem. 2001 Sep;78(6):1415-27.

Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and related analogs in inflammation.

Burstein SH, Zurier RB.

AAPS J. 2009 Mar;11(1):109-19. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9084-5. Epub 2009 Feb 6. Review.

New insights into endocannabinoid degradation and its therapeutic potential.

Bari M, Battista N, Fezza F, Gasperi V, Maccarrone M.

Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006 Mar;6(3):257-68. Review.

The future of cannabinoids as analgesic agents: a pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic overview.

McCarberg BH, Barkin RL.

Am J Ther. 2007 Sep-Oct;14(5):475-83. Review.

Human adipose tissue binds and metabolizes the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol.

Spoto B, Fezza F, Parlongo G, Battista N, Sgro' E, Gasperi V, Zoccali C, Maccarrone M.

Biochimie. 2006 Dec;88(12):1889-97. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

Endocannabinoids as regulators of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: A further opportunity to develop new endocannabinoid-based therapeutic drugs.

Di Marzo V, De Petrocellis L.

Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(14):1430-49. Review.

Endocannabinoids: synthesis and degradation.

Di Marzo V.

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;160:1-24. doi: 10.1007/112_0505. Review.

Cannabinoid drugs and enhancement of endocannabinoid responses: strategies for a wide array of disease states.

Karanian DA, Bahr BA.

Curr Mol Med. 2006 Sep;6(6):677-84. Review.

Endocannabinoids in appetite control and the treatment of obesity.

Kirkham TC, Tucci SA.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2006 Jun;5(3):272-92. Review.

Merck’s Manual of the Materia Medica Together 1899, A Ready-Reference Pocket Book for the Practicing Physician, 1st edn, Merck Research Laboratories, New York City, N.Y.

Merck’s Manual of the Materia Medica Together 1911, A Ready-Reference Pocket Book for the Practicing Physician, 4th edn, Merck Research Laboratories, New York City, N.Y.

Mathias, Tamara. Mishra, Manas. (2018, June 25). U.S. approves first marijuana plant-derived drug for epilepsy. Retrieved from

Project CBD. Cannabis Oil Extraction[web log post]. Retrieved July 2, 2018, from

Hemp Meds. How to Make CBD Oil[web log post]. Retrieved July 2, 2018, from

GW Pharmaceuticals. GW’s Epilepsy Clinical Program[web log post]. Retrieved July 2, 2018 from 

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